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Author: Мариана , 25.09.2012
Vatican, Picture
Vatican, Picture 1

  The Vatican is a small independent country in the world with an area of ​​0.44 square kilometers. and a population of about 824 people. Located in the western part of Rome, the Vatican hill and is surrounded entirely by Rome - capital of Italy. The Vatican is the seat of the Pope - the head of the Roman Catholic Church. In the southwestern part of the small country - the city is located, unless Square "St. Peter "and Basilica" St. Peter, "considered the most enormous Catholic church on Earth. To the north are the Vatican museums and other religious and administrative buildings. Vatican complex and park complex, the beginning of which is set in Renaissance occupy a large part of the area to the west. The climate is Mediterranean, with hot and dry summers and wet and mild winters.

  In the past, the Vatican was surrounded by marshes, wasteland. In the first century, Agrippina Old Swamp drains and build new gardens of the Vatican hill. Emperor Caligula, her son started at this point the construction of the arena, only completed under Emperor Nero, which is known as the "Circus of Nero." In the center of the square "St. Peter "is located obelisk brought from Egypt by Emperor Caligula. In the 60 years of the first century in the Circus of Nero have plagued many Christians. Legend has it that one of them is Peter who is killed and buried near the arena in a common grave, the place of the modern church. Next to a circus there are graveyards in antiquity that were destroyed in the story and dug around 1939-1941, the

  In 326, during Emperor Constantine I, the supposed tomb of St. Peter, who is now regarded as the founder of the so-called Roman church was built dedicated to him Konstantinova Basilica / Church /. Around her erect ancillary buildings that are associated with the cult of St. Peter. Pope Sima built in the 5th century to the church and palace.

In 756 by Pippin III - French pioneers King Papal States and donated to Pope Stephen III has Ravenski former Exarchate. In 1861-1870, the lands of the papal area are adopted in the Kingdom of Italy. Papal State has been since Pippin Short, but in 1870 Kralstvoto the 2 Sicilies was destroyed by the Italians rebels who occupy and Papal States, which existed already in 1100 From 1870 to 1929 the Popes did not recognize as established Italian Kingdom and isolated in the Vatican. Following the signing of the Lateran treaties called the Vatican and the Italian state was at 11/02/1929 created the Vatican.

  Vatican theocratic monarchy in which the Pope is the head of state. He holds the legislative, judicial and executive. Cardinal elected pope conclave that performs functions for life as head of state.

The Vatican is an independent state and acc. International law has attributes of a country has diplomatic relations with other countries maintain their embassies and diplomatic missions, international passports and more.

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